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A higher livestock density increases the internal capacity by promoting more energy exchanges within the system elements.
Natural ecosystems are maintained in a productive state through self-organization, i.e.R can be explained as the availability of possible paths of energy in case one element or link would disappear, which we measure as the percentage of the flow diversity that is redundant – “realized redundancy”).Dependency (D) is the proportion of the energy flowing through the system that is imported from the environment (Ullanowicz, 2000, Alvarez et al., 2013).The first energy analysis visualizes each farm as a “black-box” and takes into account inputs –I- (labour, fertilizers, external biomass) and outputs –O- (agricultural production) to calculate efficiencies (O/I) or total balance (O-I) (Funes-Mozonte et al., 2008).
Labour from crops, animal caring and household tasks were considered in the “black-box” analysis.
There is a great potential of using ecology knowledge about ecosystems in the agricultural context for sustainable intensification.1.